# Standard Units¶

Standard units are defined in the `astropy.units`

package as object
instances.

All units are defined in terms of basic “irreducible” units. The irreducible units include:

Length (meter)

Time (second)

Mass (kilogram)

Current (ampere)

Temperature (Kelvin)

Angular distance (radian)

Solid angle (steradian)

Luminous intensity (candela)

Stellar magnitude (mag)

Amount of substance (mole)

Photon count (photon)

(There are also some more obscure base units required by the FITS Standard that are no longer recommended for use.)

Units that involve combinations of fundamental units are instances of
`CompositeUnit`

. In most cases, you do not need
to worry about the various kinds of unit classes unless you want to
design a more complex case.

There are many units already predefined in the module. You may use the
`find_equivalent_units()`

method to list
all of the existing predefined units of a given type:

```
>>> from astropy import units as u
>>> u.g.find_equivalent_units()
Primary name | Unit definition | Aliases
[
M_e | 9.10938e-31 kg | ,
M_p | 1.67262e-27 kg | ,
earthMass | 5.97217e+24 kg | M_earth, Mearth ,
g | 0.001 kg | gram ,
jupiterMass | 1.89812e+27 kg | M_jup, Mjup, M_jupiter, Mjupiter ,
kg | irreducible | kilogram ,
solMass | 1.98841e+30 kg | M_sun, Msun ,
t | 1000 kg | tonne ,
u | 1.66054e-27 kg | Da, Dalton ,
]
```

## Prefixes¶

Most units can be used with prefixes, with both the standard SI prefixes
and the IEEE 1514-2002 binary prefixes
(for `bit`

and `byte`

) supported:

Available decimal prefixes |
||
---|---|---|

Symbol |
Prefix |
Value |

Y |
yotta- |
1e24 |

Z |
zetta- |
1e21 |

E |
exa- |
1e18 |

P |
peta- |
1e15 |

T |
tera- |
1e12 |

G |
giga- |
1e9 |

M |
mega- |
1e6 |

k |
kilo- |
1e3 |

h |
hecto- |
1e2 |

da |
deka-, deca |
1e1 |

d |
deci- |
1e-1 |

c |
centi- |
1e-2 |

m |
milli- |
1e-3 |

u |
micro- |
1e-6 |

n |
nano- |
1e-9 |

p |
pico- |
1e-12 |

f |
femto- |
1e-15 |

a |
atto- |
1e-18 |

z |
zepto- |
1e-21 |

y |
yocto- |
1e-24 |

Available binary prefixes |
||
---|---|---|

Symbol |
Prefix |
Value |

Ki |
kibi- |
2 ** 10 |

Mi |
mebi- |
2 ** 20 |

Gi |
gibi- |
2 ** 30 |

Ti |
tebi- |
2 ** 40 |

Pi |
pebi- |
2 ** 50 |

Ei |
exbi- |
2 ** 60 |

## The Dimensionless Unit¶

In addition to these units, `astropy.units`

includes the concept of
the dimensionless unit, used to indicate quantities that do not have a
physical dimension. This is distinct in concept from a unit that is
equal to `None`

: that indicates that no unit was specified in the data
or by the user.

For convenience, there is a unit that is both dimensionless and
unscaled: the `dimensionless_unscaled`

object:

```
>>> u.dimensionless_unscaled
Unit(dimensionless)
```

Dimensionless quantities are often defined as products or ratios of quantities that are not dimensionless, but whose dimensions cancel out when their powers are multiplied.

### Examples¶

To use the `dimensionless_unscaled`

object:

```
>>> u.m / u.m
Unit(dimensionless)
```

For compatibility with the String Representations of Units and Quantities, this is
equivalent to `Unit('')`

and `Unit(1)`

, though using
`u.dimensionless_unscaled`

in Python code is preferred for
readability:

```
>>> u.dimensionless_unscaled == u.Unit('')
True
>>> u.dimensionless_unscaled == u.Unit(1)
True
```

Note that in many cases, a dimensionless unit may also have a scale. For example:

```
>>> (u.km / u.m).decompose()
Unit(dimensionless with a scale of 1000.0)
>>> (u.km / u.m).decompose() == u.dimensionless_unscaled
False
```

As an example of why you might want to create a scaled dimensionless
quantity, say you will be doing many calculations with some big
unit-less number, `big_unitless_num = 20000000 # 20 million`

,
but you want all of your answers to be in multiples of a million. This
can be done by dividing `big_unitless_num`

by `1e6`

, but this
requires you to remember that this scaling factor has been applied,
which may be difficult to do after many calculations. Instead, create
a scaled dimensionless quantity by multiplying a value by `Unit(scale)`

to keep track of the scaling factor. For example:

```
>>> scale = 1e6
>>> big_unitless_num = 20 * u.Unit(scale) # 20 million
>>> some_measurement = 5.0 * u.cm
>>> some_measurement * big_unitless_num
<Quantity 100. 1e+06 cm>
```

To determine if a unit is dimensionless (but regardless of the scale),
use the `physical_type`

property:

```
>>> (u.km / u.m).physical_type
PhysicalType('dimensionless')
>>> # This also has a scale, so it is not the same as u.dimensionless_unscaled
>>> (u.km / u.m) == u.dimensionless_unscaled
False
>>> # However, (u.m / u.m) has a scale of 1.0, so it is the same
>>> (u.m / u.m) == u.dimensionless_unscaled
True
```

## Enabling Other Units¶

By default, only the “default” units are searched by
`find_equivalent_units()`

and similar methods
that do searching. This includes SI, CGS, and
astrophysical units. However, you may wish to enable the Imperial or other user-defined units.

### Example¶

To enable Imperial units, do:

```
>>> from astropy.units import imperial
>>> imperial.enable()
<astropy.units.core._UnitContext object at ...>
>>> u.m.find_equivalent_units()
Primary name | Unit definition | Aliases
[
AU | 1.49598e+11 m | au, astronomical_unit ,
Angstrom | 1e-10 m | AA, angstrom ,
cm | 0.01 m | centimeter ,
earthRad | 6.3781e+06 m | R_earth, Rearth ,
ft | 0.3048 m | foot ,
fur | 201.168 m | furlong ,
inch | 0.0254 m | ,
jupiterRad | 7.1492e+07 m | R_jup, Rjup, R_jupiter, Rjupiter ,
lsec | 2.99792e+08 m | lightsecond ,
lyr | 9.46073e+15 m | lightyear ,
m | irreducible | meter ,
mi | 1609.34 m | mile ,
micron | 1e-06 m | ,
mil | 2.54e-05 m | thou ,
nmi | 1852 m | nauticalmile, NM ,
pc | 3.08568e+16 m | parsec ,
solRad | 6.957e+08 m | R_sun, Rsun ,
yd | 0.9144 m | yard ,
]
```

This may also be used with the Python “with” statement, to temporarily enable additional units:

```
>>> with imperial.enable():
... print(u.m.find_equivalent_units())
Primary name | Unit definition | Aliases
...
```

To enable only specific units, use `add_enabled_units()`

:

```
>>> with u.add_enabled_units([imperial.knot]):
... print(u.m.find_equivalent_units())
Primary name | Unit definition | Aliases
...
```