Quantity

class astropy.units.Quantity[source]

Bases: numpy.ndarray

A Quantity represents a number with some associated unit.

See also: http://docs.astropy.org/en/stable/units/quantity.html

Parameters:
value : number, ndarray, Quantity object (sequence), str

The numerical value of this quantity in the units given by unit. If a Quantity or sequence of them (or any other valid object with a unit attribute), creates a new Quantity object, converting to unit units as needed. If a string, it is converted to a number or Quantity, depending on whether a unit is present.

unit : UnitBase instance, str

An object that represents the unit associated with the input value. Must be an UnitBase object or a string parseable by the units package.

dtype : ~numpy.dtype, optional

The dtype of the resulting Numpy array or scalar that will hold the value. If not provided, it is determined from the input, except that any input that cannot represent float (integer and bool) is converted to float.

copy : bool, optional

If True (default), then the value is copied. Otherwise, a copy will only be made if __array__ returns a copy, if value is a nested sequence, or if a copy is needed to satisfy an explicitly given dtype. (The False option is intended mostly for internal use, to speed up initialization where a copy is known to have been made. Use with care.)

order : {‘C’, ‘F’, ‘A’}, optional

Specify the order of the array. As in array. This parameter is ignored if the input is a Quantity and copy=False.

subok : bool, optional

If False (default), the returned array will be forced to be a Quantity. Otherwise, Quantity subclasses will be passed through, or a subclass appropriate for the unit will be used (such as Dex for u.dex(u.AA)).

ndmin : int, optional

Specifies the minimum number of dimensions that the resulting array should have. Ones will be pre-pended to the shape as needed to meet this requirement. This parameter is ignored if the input is a Quantity and copy=False.

Raises:
TypeError

If the value provided is not a Python numeric type.

TypeError

If the unit provided is not either a Unit object or a parseable string unit.

Notes

Quantities can also be created by multiplying a number or array with a Unit. See http://docs.astropy.org/en/latest/units/

Attributes Summary

cgs Returns a copy of the current Quantity instance with CGS units.
equivalencies A list of equivalencies that will be applied by default during unit conversions.
flat A 1-D iterator over the Quantity array.
info Container for meta information like name, description, format.
isscalar True if the value of this quantity is a scalar, or False if it is an array-like object.
si Returns a copy of the current Quantity instance with SI units.
unit A UnitBase object representing the unit of this quantity.
value The numerical value of this instance.

Methods Summary

all([axis, out, keepdims]) Returns True if all elements evaluate to True.
any([axis, out, keepdims]) Returns True if any of the elements of a evaluate to True.
argmax([axis, out]) Return indices of the maximum values along the given axis.
argmin([axis, out]) Return indices of the minimum values along the given axis of a.
argsort([axis, kind, order]) Returns the indices that would sort this array.
choose(choices[, out, mode]) Use an index array to construct a new array from a set of choices.
clip([min, max, out]) Return an array whose values are limited to [min, max].
decompose([bases]) Generates a new Quantity with the units decomposed.
diff([n, axis])
dot(b[, out]) Dot product of two arrays.
dump(file) Dump a pickle of the array to the specified file.
dumps() Returns the pickle of the array as a string.
ediff1d([to_end, to_begin])
fill(value) Fill the array with a scalar value.
insert(obj, values[, axis]) Insert values along the given axis before the given indices and return a new Quantity object.
item(*args) Copy an element of an array to a standard Python scalar and return it.
itemset(*args) Insert scalar into an array (scalar is cast to array’s dtype, if possible)
nansum([axis, out, keepdims])
put(indices, values[, mode]) Set a.flat[n] = values[n] for all n in indices.
round([decimals, out]) Return a with each element rounded to the given number of decimals.
searchsorted(v[, side, sorter]) Find indices where elements of v should be inserted in a to maintain order.
to(unit[, equivalencies]) Return a new Quantity object with the specified unit.
to_string([unit, precision, format, subfmt]) Generate a string representation of the quantity and its unit.
to_value([unit, equivalencies]) The numerical value, possibly in a different unit.
tofile(fid[, sep, format]) Write array to a file as text or binary (default).
tolist() Return the array as a (possibly nested) list.
tostring([order]) Construct Python bytes containing the raw data bytes in the array.
trace([offset, axis1, axis2, dtype, out]) Return the sum along diagonals of the array.

Attributes Documentation

cgs

Returns a copy of the current Quantity instance with CGS units. The value of the resulting object will be scaled.

equivalencies

A list of equivalencies that will be applied by default during unit conversions.

flat

A 1-D iterator over the Quantity array.

This returns a QuantityIterator instance, which behaves the same as the flatiter instance returned by flat, and is similar to, but not a subclass of, Python’s built-in iterator object.

info

Container for meta information like name, description, format. This is required when the object is used as a mixin column within a table, but can be used as a general way to store meta information.

isscalar

True if the value of this quantity is a scalar, or False if it is an array-like object.

Note

This is subtly different from numpy.isscalar in that numpy.isscalar returns False for a zero-dimensional array (e.g. np.array(1)), while this is True for quantities, since quantities cannot represent true numpy scalars.

si

Returns a copy of the current Quantity instance with SI units. The value of the resulting object will be scaled.

unit

A UnitBase object representing the unit of this quantity.

value

The numerical value of this instance.

See also

to_value
Get the numerical value in a given unit.

Methods Documentation

all(axis=None, out=None, keepdims=False)[source]

Returns True if all elements evaluate to True.

Refer to numpy.all for full documentation.

See also

numpy.all
equivalent function
any(axis=None, out=None, keepdims=False)[source]

Returns True if any of the elements of a evaluate to True.

Refer to numpy.any for full documentation.

See also

numpy.any
equivalent function
argmax(axis=None, out=None)[source]

Return indices of the maximum values along the given axis.

Refer to numpy.argmax for full documentation.

See also

numpy.argmax
equivalent function
argmin(axis=None, out=None)[source]

Return indices of the minimum values along the given axis of a.

Refer to numpy.argmin for detailed documentation.

See also

numpy.argmin
equivalent function
argsort(axis=-1, kind='quicksort', order=None)[source]

Returns the indices that would sort this array.

Refer to numpy.argsort for full documentation.

See also

numpy.argsort
equivalent function
choose(choices, out=None, mode='raise')[source]

Use an index array to construct a new array from a set of choices.

Refer to numpy.choose for full documentation.

See also

numpy.choose
equivalent function
clip(min=None, max=None, out=None)[source]

Return an array whose values are limited to [min, max]. One of max or min must be given.

Refer to numpy.clip for full documentation.

See also

numpy.clip
equivalent function
decompose(bases=[])[source]

Generates a new Quantity with the units decomposed. Decomposed units have only irreducible units in them (see astropy.units.UnitBase.decompose).

Parameters:
bases : sequence of UnitBase, optional

The bases to decompose into. When not provided, decomposes down to any irreducible units. When provided, the decomposed result will only contain the given units. This will raises a UnitsError if it’s not possible to do so.

Returns:
newq : Quantity

A new object equal to this quantity with units decomposed.

diff(n=1, axis=-1)[source]
dot(b, out=None)[source]

Dot product of two arrays.

Refer to numpy.dot for full documentation.

See also

numpy.dot
equivalent function

Examples

>>> a = np.eye(2)
>>> b = np.ones((2, 2)) * 2
>>> a.dot(b)
array([[ 2.,  2.],
       [ 2.,  2.]])

This array method can be conveniently chained:

>>> a.dot(b).dot(b)
array([[ 8.,  8.],
       [ 8.,  8.]])
dump(file)[source]

Dump a pickle of the array to the specified file. The array can be read back with pickle.load or numpy.load.

Parameters:
file : str

A string naming the dump file.

dumps()[source]

Returns the pickle of the array as a string. pickle.loads or numpy.loads will convert the string back to an array.

Parameters:
None
ediff1d(to_end=None, to_begin=None)[source]
fill(value)[source]

Fill the array with a scalar value.

Parameters:
value : scalar

All elements of a will be assigned this value.

Examples

>>> a = np.array([1, 2])
>>> a.fill(0)
>>> a
array([0, 0])
>>> a = np.empty(2)
>>> a.fill(1)
>>> a
array([ 1.,  1.])
insert(obj, values, axis=None)[source]

Insert values along the given axis before the given indices and return a new Quantity object.

This is a thin wrapper around the numpy.insert function.

Parameters:
obj : int, slice or sequence of ints

Object that defines the index or indices before which values is inserted.

values : array-like

Values to insert. If the type of values is different from that of quantity, values is converted to the matching type. values should be shaped so that it can be broadcast appropriately The unit of values must be consistent with this quantity.

axis : int, optional

Axis along which to insert values. If axis is None then the quantity array is flattened before insertion.

Returns:
out : Quantity

A copy of quantity with values inserted. Note that the insertion does not occur in-place: a new quantity array is returned.

Examples

>>> import astropy.units as u
>>> q = [1, 2] * u.m
>>> q.insert(0, 50 * u.cm)
<Quantity [ 0.5,  1.,  2.] m>
>>> q = [[1, 2], [3, 4]] * u.m
>>> q.insert(1, [10, 20] * u.m, axis=0)
<Quantity [[  1.,  2.],
           [ 10., 20.],
           [  3.,  4.]] m>
>>> q.insert(1, 10 * u.m, axis=1)
<Quantity [[  1., 10.,  2.],
           [  3., 10.,  4.]] m>
item(*args)[source]

Copy an element of an array to a standard Python scalar and return it.

Parameters:
*args : Arguments (variable number and type)
  • none: in this case, the method only works for arrays with one element (a.size == 1), which element is copied into a standard Python scalar object and returned.
  • int_type: this argument is interpreted as a flat index into the array, specifying which element to copy and return.
  • tuple of int_types: functions as does a single int_type argument, except that the argument is interpreted as an nd-index into the array.
Returns:
z : Standard Python scalar object

A copy of the specified element of the array as a suitable Python scalar

Notes

When the data type of a is longdouble or clongdouble, item() returns a scalar array object because there is no available Python scalar that would not lose information. Void arrays return a buffer object for item(), unless fields are defined, in which case a tuple is returned.

item is very similar to a[args], except, instead of an array scalar, a standard Python scalar is returned. This can be useful for speeding up access to elements of the array and doing arithmetic on elements of the array using Python’s optimized math.

Examples

>>> x = np.random.randint(9, size=(3, 3))
>>> x
array([[3, 1, 7],
       [2, 8, 3],
       [8, 5, 3]])
>>> x.item(3)
2
>>> x.item(7)
5
>>> x.item((0, 1))
1
>>> x.item((2, 2))
3
itemset(*args)[source]

Insert scalar into an array (scalar is cast to array’s dtype, if possible)

There must be at least 1 argument, and define the last argument as item. Then, a.itemset(*args) is equivalent to but faster than a[args] = item. The item should be a scalar value and args must select a single item in the array a.

Parameters:
*args : Arguments

If one argument: a scalar, only used in case a is of size 1. If two arguments: the last argument is the value to be set and must be a scalar, the first argument specifies a single array element location. It is either an int or a tuple.

Notes

Compared to indexing syntax, itemset provides some speed increase for placing a scalar into a particular location in an ndarray, if you must do this. However, generally this is discouraged: among other problems, it complicates the appearance of the code. Also, when using itemset (and item) inside a loop, be sure to assign the methods to a local variable to avoid the attribute look-up at each loop iteration.

Examples

>>> x = np.random.randint(9, size=(3, 3))
>>> x
array([[3, 1, 7],
       [2, 8, 3],
       [8, 5, 3]])
>>> x.itemset(4, 0)
>>> x.itemset((2, 2), 9)
>>> x
array([[3, 1, 7],
       [2, 0, 3],
       [8, 5, 9]])
nansum(axis=None, out=None, keepdims=False)[source]
put(indices, values, mode='raise')[source]

Set a.flat[n] = values[n] for all n in indices.

Refer to numpy.put for full documentation.

See also

numpy.put
equivalent function
round(decimals=0, out=None)[source]

Return a with each element rounded to the given number of decimals.

Refer to numpy.around for full documentation.

See also

numpy.around
equivalent function
searchsorted(v, side='left', sorter=None)[source]

Find indices where elements of v should be inserted in a to maintain order.

For full documentation, see numpy.searchsorted

See also

numpy.searchsorted
equivalent function
to(unit, equivalencies=[])[source]

Return a new Quantity object with the specified unit.

Parameters:
unit : UnitBase instance, str

An object that represents the unit to convert to. Must be an UnitBase object or a string parseable by the units package.

equivalencies : list of equivalence pairs, optional

A list of equivalence pairs to try if the units are not directly convertible. See Equivalencies. If not provided or [], class default equivalencies will be used (none for Quantity, but may be set for subclasses) If None, no equivalencies will be applied at all, not even any set globally or within a context.

See also

to_value
get the numerical value in a given unit.
to_string(unit=None, precision=None, format=None, subfmt=None)[source]

Generate a string representation of the quantity and its unit.

The behavior of this function can be altered via the numpy.set_printoptions function and its various keywords. The exception to this is the threshold keyword, which is controlled via the [units.quantity] configuration item latex_array_threshold. This is treated separately because the numpy default of 1000 is too big for most browsers to handle.

Parameters:
unit : UnitBase, optional

Specifies the unit. If not provided, the unit used to initialize the quantity will be used.

precision : numeric, optional

The level of decimal precision. If None, or not provided, it will be determined from NumPy print options.

format : str, optional

The format of the result. If not provided, an unadorned string is returned. Supported values are:

  • ‘latex’: Return a LaTeX-formatted string
subfmt : str, optional

Subformat of the result. For the moment, only used for format=”latex”. Supported values are:

  • ‘inline’: Use $ ... $ as delimiters.
  • ‘display’: Use $\displaystyle ... $ as delimiters.
Returns:
lstr

A string with the contents of this Quantity

to_value(unit=None, equivalencies=[])[source]

The numerical value, possibly in a different unit.

Parameters:
unit : UnitBase instance or str, optional

The unit in which the value should be given. If not given or None, use the current unit.

equivalencies : list of equivalence pairs, optional

A list of equivalence pairs to try if the units are not directly convertible (see Equivalencies). If not provided or [], class default equivalencies will be used (none for Quantity, but may be set for subclasses). If None, no equivalencies will be applied at all, not even any set globally or within a context.

Returns:
value : ndarray or scalar

The value in the units specified. For arrays, this will be a view of the data if no unit conversion was necessary.

See also

to
Get a new instance in a different unit.
tofile(fid, sep="", format="%s")[source]

Write array to a file as text or binary (default).

Data is always written in ‘C’ order, independent of the order of a. The data produced by this method can be recovered using the function fromfile().

Parameters:
fid : file or str

An open file object, or a string containing a filename.

sep : str

Separator between array items for text output. If “” (empty), a binary file is written, equivalent to file.write(a.tobytes()).

format : str

Format string for text file output. Each entry in the array is formatted to text by first converting it to the closest Python type, and then using “format” % item.

Notes

This is a convenience function for quick storage of array data. Information on endianness and precision is lost, so this method is not a good choice for files intended to archive data or transport data between machines with different endianness. Some of these problems can be overcome by outputting the data as text files, at the expense of speed and file size.

When fid is a file object, array contents are directly written to the file, bypassing the file object’s write method. As a result, tofile cannot be used with files objects supporting compression (e.g., GzipFile) or file-like objects that do not support fileno() (e.g., BytesIO).

tolist()[source]

Return the array as a (possibly nested) list.

Return a copy of the array data as a (nested) Python list. Data items are converted to the nearest compatible Python type.

Parameters:
none
Returns:
y : list

The possibly nested list of array elements.

Notes

The array may be recreated, a = np.array(a.tolist()).

Examples

>>> a = np.array([1, 2])
>>> a.tolist()
[1, 2]
>>> a = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
>>> list(a)
[array([1, 2]), array([3, 4])]
>>> a.tolist()
[[1, 2], [3, 4]]
tostring(order='C')[source]

Construct Python bytes containing the raw data bytes in the array.

Constructs Python bytes showing a copy of the raw contents of data memory. The bytes object can be produced in either ‘C’ or ‘Fortran’, or ‘Any’ order (the default is ‘C’-order). ‘Any’ order means C-order unless the F_CONTIGUOUS flag in the array is set, in which case it means ‘Fortran’ order.

This function is a compatibility alias for tobytes. Despite its name it returns bytes not strings.

Parameters:
order : {‘C’, ‘F’, None}, optional

Order of the data for multidimensional arrays: C, Fortran, or the same as for the original array.

Returns:
s : bytes

Python bytes exhibiting a copy of a’s raw data.

Examples

>>> x = np.array([[0, 1], [2, 3]])
>>> x.tobytes()
b'\x00\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x00\x00\x03\x00\x00\x00'
>>> x.tobytes('C') == x.tobytes()
True
>>> x.tobytes('F')
b'\x00\x00\x00\x00\x02\x00\x00\x00\x01\x00\x00\x00\x03\x00\x00\x00'
trace(offset=0, axis1=0, axis2=1, dtype=None, out=None)[source]

Return the sum along diagonals of the array.

Refer to numpy.trace for full documentation.

See also

numpy.trace
equivalent function