# Source code for astropy.coordinates.spectral_coordinate

import warnings
from textwrap import indent

import astropy.units as u
import numpy as np
from astropy.constants import c
from astropy.coordinates import (ICRS,
CartesianDifferential,
CartesianRepresentation, SkyCoord)
from astropy.coordinates.spectral_quantity import SpectralQuantity
from astropy.coordinates.baseframe import (BaseCoordinateFrame,
frame_transform_graph)
from astropy.utils.exceptions import AstropyUserWarning

__all__ = ['SpectralCoord']

KMS = u.km / u.s

# Default distance to use for target when none is provided
DEFAULT_DISTANCE = 1e6 * u.kpc

# We don't want to run doctests in the docstrings we inherit from Quantity
__doctest_skip__ = ['SpectralCoord.*']

def _velocity_to_redshift(velocity):
"""
Convert a velocity to a relativistic redshift.
"""
beta = velocity / c
return np.sqrt((1 + beta) / (1 - beta)) - 1

def _redshift_to_velocity(redshift):
"""
Convert a relativistic redshift to a velocity.
"""
zponesq = (1 + redshift) ** 2
return c * (zponesq - 1) / (zponesq + 1)

"""
Add two velocities using the full relativistic equation.
"""
return (vel1 + vel2) / (1 + vel1 * vel2 / c ** 2)

def _apply_relativistic_doppler_shift(scoord, velocity):
"""
Given a SpectralQuantity and a velocity, return a new SpectralQuantity
that is Doppler shifted by this amount.

Note that the Doppler shift applied is the full relativistic one, so
SpectralQuantity currently expressed in velocity and not using the
relativistic convention will temporarily be converted to use the
relativistic convention while the shift is applied.

Positive velocities are assumed to redshift the spectral quantity,
while negative velocities blueshift the spectral quantity.
"""

# NOTE: we deliberately don't keep sub-classes of SpectralQuantity intact
# since we can't guarantee that their metadata would be correct/consistent.
squantity = scoord.view(SpectralQuantity)

beta = velocity / c
doppler_factor = np.sqrt((1 + beta) / (1 - beta))

if squantity.unit.is_equivalent(u.m):  # wavelength
return squantity * doppler_factor
elif (squantity.unit.is_equivalent(u.Hz) or
squantity.unit.is_equivalent(u.eV) or
squantity.unit.is_equivalent(1 / u.m)):
return squantity / doppler_factor
elif squantity.unit.is_equivalent(KMS):  # velocity
return (squantity.to(u.Hz) / doppler_factor).to(squantity.unit)
else:  # pragma: no cover
raise RuntimeError(f"Unexpected units in velocity shift: {squantity.unit}. "
"This should not happen, so please report this in the "
"astropy issue tracker!")

def update_differentials_to_match(original, velocity_reference, preserve_observer_frame=False):
"""
Given an original coordinate object, update the differentials so that
the final coordinate is at the same location as the original coordinate
but co-moving with the velocity reference object.

If preserve_original_frame is set to True, the resulting object will be in
the frame of the original coordinate, otherwise it will be in the frame of
the velocity reference.
"""

if not velocity_reference.data.differentials:
raise ValueError("Reference frame has no velocities")

# If the reference has an obstime already defined, we should ignore
# it and stick with the original observer obstime.
if 'obstime' in velocity_reference.frame_attributes and hasattr(original, 'obstime'):
velocity_reference = velocity_reference.replicate(obstime=original.obstime)

# We transform both coordinates to ICRS for simplicity and because we know
# it's a simple frame that is not time-dependent (it could be that both
# the original and velocity_reference frame are time-dependent)

original_icrs = original.transform_to(ICRS())
velocity_reference_icrs = velocity_reference.transform_to(ICRS())

differentials = velocity_reference_icrs.data.represent_as(CartesianRepresentation,
CartesianDifferential).differentials

data_with_differentials = (original_icrs.data.represent_as(CartesianRepresentation)
.with_differentials(differentials))

final_icrs = original_icrs.realize_frame(data_with_differentials)

if preserve_observer_frame:
final = final_icrs.transform_to(original)
else:
final = final_icrs.transform_to(velocity_reference)

return final.replicate(representation_type=CartesianRepresentation,
differential_type=CartesianDifferential)

def attach_zero_velocities(coord):
"""
Set the differentials to be stationary on a coordinate object.
"""
coord_diffs = CartesianDifferential(u.Quantity([0, 0, 0] * KMS))
new_data = coord.cartesian.with_differentials(coord_diffs)
return coord.realize_frame(new_data)

[docs]class SpectralCoord(SpectralQuantity):
"""
A spectral coordinate with its corresponding unit.

.. note:: The |SpectralCoord| class is new in Astropy v4.1 and should be
considered experimental at this time. Note that we do not fully
support cases where the observer and target are moving
relativistically relative to each other, so care should be taken
in those cases. It is possible that there will be API changes in
future versions of Astropy based on user feedback. If you have
specific ideas for how it might be improved, please  let us know
on the astropy-dev mailing list_ or at
http://feedback.astropy.org.

Parameters
----------
value : ndarray or ~astropy.units.Quantity or SpectralCoord
Spectral values, which should be either wavelength, frequency,
energy, wavenumber, or velocity values.
unit : str or ~astropy.units.Unit
Unit for the given spectral values.
observer : ~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame or ~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord, optional
The coordinate (position and velocity) of observer. If no velocities
are present on this object, the observer is assumed to be stationary
relative to the frame origin.
target : ~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame or ~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord, optional
The coordinate (position and velocity) of target. If no velocities
are present on this object, the target is assumed to be stationary
relative to the frame origin.
radial_velocity : ~astropy.units.Quantity, optional
The radial velocity of the target with respect to the observer. This
can only be specified if redshift is not specified.
redshift : float, optional
The relativistic redshift of the target with respect to the observer.
This can only be specified if radial_velocity cannot be specified.
doppler_rest : ~astropy.units.Quantity, optional
The rest value to use when expressing the spectral value as a velocity.
doppler_convention : str, optional
The Doppler convention to use when expressing the spectral value as a velocity.
"""

def __new__(cls, value, unit=None,
observer=None, target=None,
**kwargs):

obj = super().__new__(cls, value, unit=unit, **kwargs)

# There are two main modes of operation in this class. Either the
# observer and target are both defined, in which case the radial
# velocity and redshift are automatically computed from these, or
# only one of the observer and target are specified, along with a
# manually specified radial velocity or redshift. So if a target and
# observer are both specified, we can't also accept a radial velocity
# or redshift.
if target is not None and observer is not None:
if radial_velocity is not None or redshift is not None:
raise ValueError("Cannot specify radial velocity or redshift if both "
"target and observer are specified")

# We only deal with redshifts here and in the redshift property.
# Otherwise internally we always deal with velocities.
if redshift is not None:
raise ValueError("Cannot set both a radial velocity and redshift")
redshift = u.Quantity(redshift)
# For now, we can't specify redshift=u.one in quantity_input above
# and have it work with plain floats, but if that is fixed, for
# example as in https://github.com/astropy/astropy/pull/10232, we
# can remove the check here and add redshift=u.one to the decorator
if not redshift.unit.is_equivalent(u.one):
raise u.UnitsError('redshift should be dimensionless')

# If we're initializing from an existing SpectralCoord, keep any
# parameters that aren't being overridden
if observer is None:
observer = getattr(value, 'observer', None)
if target is None:
target = getattr(value, 'target', None)

# As mentioned above, we should only specify the radial velocity
# manually if either or both the observer and target are not
# specified.
if observer is None or target is None:
if radial_velocity is None and redshift is None:

# Keep track of whether the observer and target were specified
# explicitly or whether we use pseudo observers/targets (see below)
obj._observer_specified = observer is not None
obj._target_specified = target is not None

# Keep track of whether the radial velocity was explicitly specified
# (including as a redshift)
obj._rv_specified = radial_velocity is not None

if observer is not None:
observer = cls._validate_coordinate(observer, label='observer')

if target is not None:
target = cls._validate_coordinate(target, label='target')

# If no observer is defined, create a default observer centered in the
# ICRS frame. We never expose this to the user, and this is only used
# for internal purposes.
if observer is None:
if target is None:
observer = ICRS(ra=0 * u.degree, dec=0 * u.degree,
pm_ra_cosdec=0 * u.mas/u.yr, pm_dec=0 * u.mas/u.yr,
distance=1 * u.m, radial_velocity=0 * u.km/u.s)
else:

# If no target is defined, create a default target with any provided
# redshift/radial velocities. We never expose this to the user, and
# this is only used for internal purposes.
if target is None:

obj._observer = observer
obj._target = target

return obj

def __array_finalize__(self, obj):
super().__array_finalize__(obj)
self._observer_specified = getattr(obj, '_observer_specified', None)
self._target_specified = getattr(obj, '_target_specified', None)
self._rv_specified = getattr(obj, '_rv_specified', None)
self._observer = getattr(obj, '_observer', None)
self._target = getattr(obj, '_target', None)

@staticmethod
"""
Generates a default target or observer from a provided observer or
target with an offset defined such as to create the provided radial
velocity.

Parameters
----------
observer : ~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame or ~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord
Observer frame off which to base the target frame.
radial_velocity : ~astropy.units.Quantity
Radial velocity used to calculate appropriate offsets between
provided observer and generated target.

Returns
-------
target : ~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame or ~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord
Generated target frame.
"""

# The generated observer or target will be set up along the same y and z
# coordinates as the target or observer, but offset along the x direction

observer_icrs = observer.transform_to(ICRS())

d = observer_icrs.cartesian.norm()
drep = CartesianRepresentation([DEFAULT_DISTANCE.to(d.unit),
0 * d.unit, 0 * d.unit])

obs_vel = observer_icrs.cartesian.differentials['s']

target = (observer_icrs.cartesian.without_differentials() + drep).with_differentials(

return observer_icrs.realize_frame(target)

@staticmethod
def _validate_coordinate(coord, label=''):
"""
Checks the type of the frame and whether a velocity differential and a
distance has been defined on the frame object.

If no distance is defined, the target is assumed to be "really far
away", and the observer is assumed to be "in the solar system".

Parameters
----------
coord : ~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame
The new frame to be used for target or observer.
"""
if not issubclass(coord.__class__, BaseCoordinateFrame):
if isinstance(coord, SkyCoord):
coord = coord.frame
else:
raise TypeError(f"{label} must be a SkyCoord or coordinate frame instance")

# If the distance is not well-defined, ensure that it works properly
# for generating differentials
# TODO: change this to not set the distance and yield a warning once
# there's a good way to address this in astropy.coordinates
if hasattr(coord, 'distance') and \
coord.distance.unit.physical_type == 'dimensionless':
coord = SkyCoord(coord, distance=DEFAULT_DISTANCE)
warnings.warn(
"Distance on coordinate object is dimensionless, an "
f"abritrary distance value of {DEFAULT_DISTANCE} will be set instead.",
AstropyUserWarning)

# If the observer frame does not contain information about the
# velocity of the system, assume that the velocity is zero in the
# system.
if 's' not in coord.data.differentials:
warnings.warn(
"No velocity defined on frame, assuming {}.".format(
u.Quantity([0, 0, 0], unit=u.km/u.s)),
AstropyUserWarning)

coord = attach_zero_velocities(coord)

return coord

[docs]    def replicate(self, value=None, unit=None,
observer=None, target=None,
doppler_convention=None, doppler_rest=None,
copy=False):
"""
Return a replica of the SpectralCoord, optionally changing the
values or attributes.

Note that no conversion is carried out by this method - this keeps
all the values and attributes the same, except for the ones explicitly
passed to this method which are changed.

If copy is set to True then a full copy of the internal arrays
will be made.  By default the replica will use a reference to the
original arrays when possible to save memory.

Parameters
----------
value : ndarray or ~astropy.units.Quantity or SpectralCoord, optional
Spectral values, which should be either wavelength, frequency,
energy, wavenumber, or velocity values.
unit : str or ~astropy.units.Unit
Unit for the given spectral values.
observer : ~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame or ~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord, optional
The coordinate (position and velocity) of observer.
target : ~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame or ~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord, optional
The coordinate (position and velocity) of target.
radial_velocity : ~astropy.units.Quantity, optional
The radial velocity of the target with respect to the observer.
redshift : float, optional
The relativistic redshift of the target with respect to the observer.
doppler_rest : ~astropy.units.Quantity, optional
The rest value to use when expressing the spectral value as a velocity.
doppler_convention : str, optional
The Doppler convention to use when expressing the spectral value as a velocity.
copy : bool, optional
If True, and value is not specified, the values are copied to
the new SkyCoord - otherwise a reference to the same values is used.

Returns
-------
sc : SpectralCoord object
Replica of this object
"""

if isinstance(value, u.Quantity):
if unit is not None:
raise ValueError("Cannot specify value as a Quantity and also specify unit")
else:
value, unit = value.value, value.unit

value = value if value is not None else self.value
unit = unit or self.unit
observer = observer or self.observer
target = target or self.target
doppler_convention = doppler_convention or self.doppler_convention
doppler_rest = doppler_rest or self.doppler_rest

# If value is being taken from self and copy is Tru
if copy:
value = value.copy()

# Only include radial_velocity if it is not auto-computed from the
# observer and target.
if (self.observer is None or self.target is None) and radial_velocity is None and redshift is None:

return self.__class__(value=value, unit=unit,
observer=observer, target=target,
doppler_convention=doppler_convention, doppler_rest=doppler_rest, copy=False)

@property
def quantity(self):
"""
Convert the SpectralCoord to a ~astropy.units.Quantity.
Equivalent to self.view(u.Quantity).

Returns
-------
~astropy.units.Quantity
This object viewed as a ~astropy.units.Quantity.

"""
return self.view(u.Quantity)

@property
def observer(self):
"""
The coordinates of the observer.

Returns
-------
~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame
The astropy coordinate frame representing the observation.
"""
if self._observer_specified:
return self._observer

@observer.setter
def observer(self, value):

if self.observer is not None:
raise ValueError("observer has already been set")

self._observer_specified = value is not None

value = self._validate_coordinate(value, label='observer')

# The default target is based off the observer frame. In the case
# where both observer/target are initialized to defaults, and then
# the user sets a new observer, we need to create a new target based
# on the input frame to maintain rv/redshift continuity.
if self.target is None:
self._target = self._create_coord_from_offset(

self._observer = value

@property
def target(self):
"""
The coordinates of the target being observed.

Returns
-------
~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame
The astropy coordinate frame representing the target.
"""
if self._target_specified:
return self._target

@target.setter
def target(self, value):
if self.target is not None:
raise ValueError("target has already been set")

self._target_specified = value is not None

value = self._validate_coordinate(value, label='target')

self._target = value

@property
"""
Radial velocity of target relative to the observer.

Returns
-------
~astropy.units.Quantity

Notes
-----
This is different from the .radial_velocity property of a
coordinate frame in that this calculates the radial velocity with
respect to the *observer*, not the origin of the frame.
"""
as_scalar=True)

@property
def redshift(self):
"""
Redshift of target relative to observer. Calculated from the radial
velocity.

Returns
-------
float
Redshift of target.
"""

@staticmethod
"""
Compute the line-of-sight velocity from the observer to the target.

Parameters
----------
observer : ~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame
The frame of the observer.
target : ~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame
The frame of the target.
as_scalar : bool
If True, the magnitude of the velocity vector will be returned,
otherwise the full vector will be returned.

Returns
-------
~astropy.units.Quantity
The radial velocity of the target with respect to the observer.
"""

# Convert observer and target to ICRS to avoid finite differencing
# calculations that lack numerical precision.
observer_icrs = observer.transform_to(ICRS())
target_icrs = target.transform_to(ICRS())

pos_hat = SpectralCoord._norm_d_pos(observer_icrs, target_icrs)

d_vel = target_icrs.velocity - observer_icrs.velocity

vel_mag = pos_hat.dot(d_vel)

if as_scalar:
return vel_mag
else:
return vel_mag * pos_hat

@staticmethod
def _norm_d_pos(observer, target):
"""
Calculate the normalized position vector between two frames.

Parameters
----------
observer : ~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame or ~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord
The observation frame or coordinate.
target : ~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame or ~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord
The target frame or coordinate.

Returns
-------
pos_hat : BaseRepresentation
Position representation.
"""
d_pos = (target.cartesian.without_differentials() -
observer.cartesian.without_differentials())

dp_norm = d_pos.norm()

# Reset any that are 0 to 1 to avoid nans from 0/0
dp_norm[dp_norm == 0] = 1 * dp_norm.unit

pos_hat = d_pos / dp_norm

return pos_hat

def _change_observer_to(self, observer, target=None):
"""
Moves the observer to the provided coordinate/frame.

Parameters
----------
observer : ~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame or ~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord
The new observation frame or coordinate.
target : ~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord, optional
The ~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord object representing the target of the observation.
If none given, defaults to currently defined target.

Returns
-------
new_coord : SpectralCoord
The new coordinate object representing the spectral data
transformed to the new observer frame.
"""

if self.observer is None:
raise ValueError("No observer has been set, cannot change "
"observer.")

target = self.target if target is None else target

# Check velocities and distance values on the new frame. This is
#  handled in the frame validation.
observer = self._validate_coordinate(observer, label='observer')

# Calculate the initial and final los velocity

line_of_sight_unit_vec = self._norm_d_pos(observer, target)

new_data = self._project_velocity_and_shift(init_obs_vel, fin_obs_vel, line_of_sight_unit_vec)

new_coord = self.replicate(value=new_data,
observer=observer,
target=target)

return new_coord

def _project_velocity_and_shift(self, init_vel, fin_vel, line_of_sight_unit_vec):
"""
Calculate the velocity projection given two vectors.

Parameters
----------
init_vel :BaseRepresentation
Initial velocity vector.
fin_vel : BaseRepresentation
Final velocity vector.
line_of_sight_unit_vec : BaseRepresentation
Unit vector pointing from observer to target

Returns
-------
new_data : u.Quantity
Spectral axis data with velocity shift applied.
"""

# Project the velocity shift vector onto the line-of-sight vector
# between the target and the new observation frame.
init_proj_vel = line_of_sight_unit_vec.dot(init_vel) * line_of_sight_unit_vec

# Calculate the magnitude of the velocity shift between the two vectors.
# The vectors are aligned but may be in opposite directions, so we use
# the dot product to determine this.

diff_vel = fin_vel - init_proj_vel
delta_vel = line_of_sight_unit_vec.dot(diff_vel)

# In the case where the projected velocity is nan, we can assume that
# the final velocity different is zero, and thus the actual velocity
# delta is equal to the original radial velocity.

# TODO: Due to lack of precision in some coordinate transformations,
# we may end up with a final velocity very close to, but not quite at,
# zero. In this case, set a tolerance for the final velocity; if it's
# below this tolerance, assume the delta velocity is essentially nan.

if np.isnan(delta_vel) or fin_vel.norm() < 1e-7 * fin_vel.xyz.unit:

return _apply_relativistic_doppler_shift(self, delta_vel)

[docs]    @u.quantity_input(velocity=u.km/u.s)
def with_observer_stationary_relative_to(self, frame, velocity=None, preserve_observer_frame=False):
"""
A new  SpectralCoord with the velocity of the observer altered,
but not the position.

If a coordinate frame is specified, the observer velocities will be
modified to be stationary in the specified frame. If a coordinate
instance is specified, optionally with non-zero velocities, the
observer velocities will be updated so that the observer is co-moving
with the specified coordinates.

Parameters
----------
frame : str, ~astropy.coordinates.BaseCoordinateFrame or ~astropy.coordinates.SkyCoord
The observation frame in which the observer will be stationary. This
can be the name of a frame (e.g. 'icrs'), a frame class, frame instance
with no data, or instance with data. This can optionally include
velocities.
velocity : ~astropy.units.Quantity, optional
If frame does not contain velocities, these can be specified as
a 3-element ~astropy.units.Quantity. In the case where this is
also not specified, the velocities default to zero.
preserve_observer_frame : bool
If True, the final observer frame class will be the same as the
original one, and if False it will be the frame of the velocity
reference class.

Returns
-------
new_coord : SpectralCoord
The new coordinate object representing the spectral data
transformed based on the observer's new velocity frame.
"""

if self.observer is None or self.target is None:
raise ValueError("This method can only be used if both observer "
"and target are defined on the SpectralCoord.")

# Start off by extracting frame if a SkyCoord was passed in
if isinstance(frame, SkyCoord):
frame = frame.frame

if isinstance(frame, BaseCoordinateFrame):

if not frame.has_data:
frame = frame.realize_frame(CartesianRepresentation(0 * u.km, 0 * u.km, 0 * u.km))

if frame.data.differentials:
if velocity is not None:
raise ValueError('frame already has differentials, cannot also specify velocity')
# otherwise frame is ready to go
else:
if velocity is None:
differentials = CartesianDifferential(0 * u.m / u.s, 0 * u.m / u.s, 0 * u.m / u.s)
else:
differentials = CartesianDifferential(*velocity)
frame = frame.realize_frame(frame.data.with_differentials(differentials))

if isinstance(frame, (type, str)):
if isinstance(frame, type):
frame_cls = frame
elif isinstance(frame, str):
frame_cls = frame_transform_graph.lookup_name(frame)
if velocity is None:
velocity = 0 * u.m / u.s, 0 * u.m / u.s, 0 * u.m / u.s
elif velocity.shape != (3,):
raise ValueError('velocity should be a Quantity vector with 3 elements')
frame = frame_cls(0 * u.m, 0 * u.m, 0 * u.m,
*velocity,
representation_type='cartesian',
differential_type='cartesian')

observer = update_differentials_to_match(self.observer, frame,
preserve_observer_frame=preserve_observer_frame)

new_coord = self._change_observer_to(observer)

return new_coord

"""
Apply a velocity shift to this spectral coordinate.

The shift can be provided as a redshift (float value) or radial
velocity (~astropy.units.Quantity with physical type of 'speed').

Parameters
----------
target_shift : float or ~astropy.units.Quantity
Shift value to apply to current target.
observer_shift : float or ~astropy.units.Quantity
Shift value to apply to current observer.

Returns
-------
SpectralCoord
New spectral coordinate with the target/observer velocity changed
to incorporate the shift.
"""
if observer_shift is not None and (self.target is None or
self.observer is None):
raise ValueError("Both an observer and target must be defined "
"before applying a velocity shift.")

for arg in [x for x in [target_shift, observer_shift] if x is not None]:
if isinstance(arg, u.Quantity) and not arg.unit.is_equivalent((u.one, KMS)):
raise u.UnitsError("Argument must have unit physical type "
"'speed' for radial velocty or "
"'dimensionless' for redshift.")

# The target or observer value is defined but is not a quantity object,
#  assume it's a redshift float value and convert to velocity

if target_shift is None:
target_shift = 0 * KMS
else:
target_shift = u.Quantity(target_shift)
if target_shift.unit.physical_type == 'dimensionless':
target_shift = _redshift_to_velocity(target_shift)

if observer_shift is None:
observer_shift = 0 * KMS
else:
observer_shift = u.Quantity(observer_shift)
if observer_shift.unit.physical_type == 'dimensionless':
observer_shift = _redshift_to_velocity(observer_shift)

target_icrs = self._target.transform_to(ICRS())
observer_icrs = self._observer.transform_to(ICRS())

pos_hat = SpectralCoord._norm_d_pos(observer_icrs, target_icrs)

target_velocity = target_icrs.velocity + target_shift * pos_hat
observer_velocity = observer_icrs.velocity + observer_shift * pos_hat

target_velocity = CartesianDifferential(target_velocity.xyz)
observer_velocity = CartesianDifferential(observer_velocity.xyz)

new_target = (target_icrs
.realize_frame(target_icrs.cartesian.with_differentials(target_velocity))
.transform_to(self._target))

new_observer = (observer_icrs
.realize_frame(observer_icrs.cartesian.with_differentials(observer_velocity))
.transform_to(self._observer))

line_of_sight_unit_vec = self._norm_d_pos(observer_icrs, target_icrs)

new_data = self._project_velocity_and_shift(init_obs_vel, fin_obs_vel, line_of_sight_unit_vec)

if self.observer is None or self.target is None:
else:

# If an observer/target pair were not defined already, we want to avoid
# providing an explicit pair, so create a new SpectralCoord object
# with just the radial velocity set so new implicit observer/target
# will be created. Otherwise, use the available observer/target
# instances to create the pair.
return self.replicate(value=new_data,
observer=new_observer if self.observer is not None else None,
target=new_target if self.target is not None else None,

[docs]    def to_rest(self):
"""
Transforms the spectral axis to the rest frame.
"""

if self.observer is not None and self.target is not None:
return self.with_observer_stationary_relative_to(self.target)

return self.replicate(value=result, radial_velocity=0. * KMS, redshift=None)

def __repr__(self):

prefixstr = '<' + self.__class__.__name__ + ' '

try:
redshift = self.redshift
except ValueError:

repr_items = [f'{prefixstr}']

if self.observer is not None:
observer_repr = indent(repr(self.observer), 14 * ' ').lstrip()
repr_items.append(f'    observer: {observer_repr}')

if self.target is not None:
target_repr = indent(repr(self.target), 12 * ' ').lstrip()
repr_items.append(f'    target: {target_repr}')

if (self._observer_specified and self._target_specified) or self._rv_specified:
if self.observer is not None and self.target is not None:
repr_items.append('    observer to target (computed from above):')
else:
repr_items.append('    observer to target:')
repr_items.append(f'      redshift={redshift}')

if self.doppler_rest is not None or self.doppler_convention is not None:
repr_items.append(f'    doppler_rest={self.doppler_rest}')
repr_items.append(f'    doppler_convention={self.doppler_convention}')

arrstr = np.array2string(self.view(np.ndarray), separator=', ',
prefix='  ')

if len(repr_items) == 1:
repr_items += f'{arrstr}{self._unitstr:s}'
else:
repr_items = '   (' + repr_items.lstrip()
repr_items[-1] += ')'
repr_items.append(f'  {arrstr}{self._unitstr:s}')

return '\n'.join(repr_items) + '>'